Detection of fraud by addition cow’s milk in cheese buffalo and its connection with seasonality
Palavras-chave:Bubalus bubalis, gene 12S rRNA, mPCR, identificação de espécies.
The seasons influence the production of buffalos’ milk. Because of this, the producers may produce a mixture of buffalo and bovine milk during cheese production in periods of low production. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate fraud in buffalo cheese and the relationship between seasonality and different physicochemical properties of buffalo cheeses produced and marketed in eastern Amazonia. We obtained commercial samples of buffalo cheese during two Amazonian climatic periods from commercial points of Marajó-Pará, Brazil. After collection, there were lipid, protein, ash, and humidity analyses. Determination of carbohydrates and energy values was also performed for the nutritional characterization of samples, as well as for mPCR analysis to detect buffalo and/or bovine DNA. DNA extraction protocol of the samples was standardized and two pairs were used for the mPCR reaction, amplifying fragments of approximately 220 bp for Bubalus bubalis DNA and 346 bp fragments for Bos taurus DNA. Among the samples acquired in the rainy season, we observed that 33% were inadequately labeled, indicating fraud from cow’s milk incorporation and fraud from substitution of raw material. From the nine samples obtained in the dry season, all the samples showed cow’s milk incorporation fraud. The highest fraud rate coincided with the period of low milk production from buffalo and there was a difference in composition between fraudulent and non-fraudulent cheeses. Therefore, seasonality influences increase in cattle milk for the production of buffalo cheese, and this adulteration may decrease the nutritional content of the product.