Potential biogenic amine-producing bacteria in ripened cheeses
Palavras-chave:aminas biogênicas, cultura iniciadora, maturação, queijo
This study aimed to determine which of the eight cheese varieties (Prato, Standard Minas, Gorgonzola-, Moleson-, Raclette-, Gruyère-, Sbrinz- and Reblochon-types) prepared at a dairy processing plant in the state of Rio de Janeiro had higher concentration of biogenic amines (BA) (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine), to detect which BA were produced at higher concentrations and to determine if the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, biogenic amine producing bacteria (BAPB) or physical-chemical parameters (pH, titratable acidity, fat, moisture, total solids, protein, ash and chloride) would be correlated with BA production in the eight matured cheese varieties. Moleson-type cheese (72.50 mg.Kg-1) followed by Standard Minas (107.00 mg.Kg-1) showed the lowest levels of biogenic amines. Prato (699.29 mg.Kg-1) and Gorgonzola-type (936.37 mg.Kg-1) cheeses contained larger amounts of BA. Concentrations of tyramine exceeded the maximum permissible limit in all varieties of cheese. Although the presence of potentially BA-producing bacteria was confirmed in all samples of cheese, there was no correlation with BA content produced in cheeses. Gorgonzola-type cheese showed a positive correlation with the amount of BA in the isolates. Gorgonzola-type, Sbrinz-type and Prato cheeses seem to require greater care in monitoring the presence of biogenic amines, particularly because tyramine reached the highest levels in these varieties. Regardless of the analysed cheese, physical and chemical parameters did not affect the amount of BA produced. An assessment of the capacity to produce biogenic amines should be included as a selection criterion for starter cultures for ripened cheeses.