Contact Hypothesis, Intercultural Encounters, Intercultural Sensitivity, Intercultural Competence, Nomological Network, Study Abroad, Sociology of Education


This paper presents a qualitative research examining the extent to which sojourns abroad engage their partakers in intercultural interactions and explores whether experiences like this translates into intercultural growth in students. The results of this study demonstrated that studying abroad would not suffice for complete immersion into the local community or allow one to discover the nuances of another culture in their entirety. Nonetheless, students who were surrounded by their local and international counterparts were exposed to foreign cultures and were motivated to explore and interpret the diversity they encountered. They were thus equipped with knowledge of unfamiliar cultures and were sensitised to cultural diversity. Such contact often challenged the students’ established opinions and ideas, which largely stemmed from stereotypes about specific cultures. Rethinking this, to varied extents, resulted in evolved attitudes and values. International engagement also stimulated introspection and a deepened understanding of identity among the students, thereby contributing to their self-awareness. By offering opportunities to experience cultural diversity, the sojourn prompts students to develop coping strategies and draw parallels with their own culture, along with fostering intercultural development to a certain degree, and is therefore of great significance for policy makers, curriculum developers, teachers and tertiary students.




Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Ashraf Alam, Department of Education, University of Delhi, India

Ashraf Alam

Department of Education, University of Delhi, India


ORCiD: 0000-0001-6178-1187

Scopus Author ID: 57216352508

Mob: +91-9334785180

Twitter Handle: @AshrafAlam12345


Ashraf Alam holds Masters in Education (M.Ed.), M.Sc. in Mathematics, M.A. in Public Administration, B.Sc. (Hons.) in Computer Science, Bachelor's degree in Education (B.Ed.), PG Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE), PG Diploma in Computer Applications (PGDCA), Certificate Programme in Value Education (CPVE), PG Diploma in Criminology and Police Administration (PGDC&PA), Certificate in Guidance (CIG), and PG Diploma in Educational Technology.


Aladia, S. (2017). Influence of Study Abroad on Students’ Cultural Attitudes.

Alam, A. (2020a). Pedagogy of Calculus in India: An Empirical Investigation. Periódico Tchê Química, 17(34), 164-180.

Alam, A. (2020b). Possibilities and Challenges of Compounding Artificial Intelligence in India’s Educational Landscape. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(5), 5077-5094.

Alam, A. (2020). Test of Knowledge of Elementary Vectors Concepts (TKEVC) among First-Semester Bachelor of Engineering and Technology Students. Periódico Tchê Química, 17(35), 477-494.

Alam, A., Kumari, M., & Alam, S. (2018). Seventh Pay Revision Vis-à-Vis Higher Education in India. Indian Journal of Social Research, 59(5), 719-733.

Alam, S., & Kumari, M. (2017). Tribal Heritage Conservation in Jharkhand from an Anthropological Viewpoint. Indian Journal of Social Research, 58, 913-924.

Alam, S., & Raj, A. (2017). The Academic Journey of Witchcraft Studies in India. Man in India, 97, 123-138.

Alam, S., & Raj, A. (2018). Witchcraft and Witch Hunting in India: An Assessment. Emerging Challenges of Violence Against Women, Odisha State Women Commission, Bhubaneswar, India, 21-25.

Allport, G. W., Clark, K., & Pettigrew, T. (1954). The nature of prejudice.

Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (2015). Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications: Routledge.

Arasaratnam-Smith, L. A. (2017). Intercultural competence. Intercultural competence in higher education: International approaches, assessment and application.

Armfield, P. A. (2004). An examination of the relationship between students' interaction with host nationals while on study abroad and their development of intercultural sensitivity.

Ashraf, A. (2020). Challenges and Possibilities in Teaching and Learning of Calculus: A Case Study of India. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(1), 407-433.

Aveni, V. A. P. (2005). Study abroad and second language use: Constructing the self: Cambridge University Press.

Barkin, G. (2018). Either Here or There: Short‐Term Study Abroad and the Discourse of Going. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 49(3), 296-317.

Bennett, M. J. (1986). A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. International journal of intercultural relations, 10(2), 179-196.

Bennett, M. J. (2004). Becoming interculturally competent. Toward multiculturalism: A reader in multicultural education, 2, 62-77.

Bennett, M. J. (2017). Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. The international encyclopedia of intercultural communication, 1-10.

Benson, A. D., Joseph, R., & Moore, J. L. (2017). Culture, learning, and technology: Research and practice: Taylor & Francis.

Berardo, K., & Deardorff, D. K. (2012). Building cultural competence: Innovative activities and models: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Bianco, J. (2009). Intercultural encounters and deep cultural beliefs. China and English: Globalization and Dilemmas of Identity, 23-56.

Blasco, M., & Gustafsson, J. (2004). Intercultural alternatives: critical perspectives on intercultural encounters in theory and practice: Copenhagen Business School Press DK.

Bob, D., & Nagy, G. The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence.

Bremer, K., Roberts, C., Vasseur, M.-T., Simnot, M., & Broeder, P. (2014). Achieving understanding: Discourse in intercultural encounters: Routledge.

Brewer, E., & Cunningham, K. (2010). Integrating study abroad into the curriculum: Stylus Pub.

Burrow, J. D. (2019). A Meta-analysis of the Relationship between Study Abroad and Intercultural Competence.

Caspi, A. (1984). Contact hypothesis and inter-age attitudes: A field study of cross-age contact. Social psychology quarterly, 74-80.

Chieffo, L. (2010). Here to stay: Increasing acceptance of short-term study abroad programs The handbook of practice and research in study abroad (pp. 387-402): Routledge.

Corbin, J. Anselm. Strauss (2007). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory.

Cots, J. M., Aguilar, M., Mas-Alcolea, S., & Llanes, À. (2016). Studying the impact of academic mobility on intercultural competence: a mixed-methods perspective. The Language Learning Journal, 44(3), 304-322.

Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2012). The imagined contact hypothesis Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 46, pp. 125-182): Elsevier.

Cubillos, J., & Ilvento, T. (2018). Intercultural contact in short-term study abroad programs. Hispania, 101(2), 249-266.

Cushner, K. (2010). The role of study abroad in preparing globally responsible teachers The handbook of practice and research in study abroad (pp. 173-191): Routledge.

Deardorff, D. K. (2018). Theories of cultural and educational exchange, intercultural competence, conflict resolution, and peace education Cultural and educational exchanges between rival societies (pp. 23-38): Springer.

Dervin, F., Du, X., & Härkönen, A. (2018). International students in China: Education, student life and intercultural encounters: Springer.

Doerr, N. M., & Taïeb, H. D. (2017). The romance of crossing borders: Studying and volunteering abroad: Berghahn Books.

Egekvist, U. E., Lyngdorf, N.-E., Du, X.-Y., & Shi, J. (2016). Intercultural competence in host students? A study of Danish students facing China at home Intercultural Competence in Education (pp. 31-50): Springer.

Ennis, M. J., & Riley, C. E. (2018). Practices in intercultural language teaching and learning: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Fong, J. (2020). An evaluation of an education abroad program on the intercultural learning and cross-cultural adaptability skills of university undergraduates. Higher Education Evaluation and Development.

Forbes, H. D. (1997). Ethnic conflict: Commerce, culture, and the contact hypothesis: Yale University Press.

Foster, C. (2011). Intercultural Sensitivity in Foreign Student Advising: A Quantitative Analysis of Ethnocentrism within the Profession in the Post 9/11 Era. Journal of International Students 2011 Vol 1 Issue 2, 76.

Freed, B. F. (1995). Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (Vol. 9): John Benjamins Publishing.

Gaertner, S. L., Rust, M. C., Dovidio, J. F., & Bachman, B. A. (1996). The contact hypothesis: The role of a common ingroup identity on reducing intergroup bias among majority and minority group members.

GarrettRucks, P. (2016). Intercultural competence in instructed language learning: Bridging theory and practice: IAP.

Gonçalves, S., & Carpenter, M. A. (2013). Diversity, intercultural encounters, and education: Routledge.

Green, T. K. (2007). Discomfort at work: Workplace assimilation demands and the contact hypothesis. NCL Rev., 86, 379.

Gumperz, J. (2014). Intercultural encounters. The Discourse Studies Reader: Main Currents in Theory and Analysis, 217-224.

Hanson, R. A. (2017). Intergroup Contact through Study Abroad: An Investigation of Effects of Study Abroad on Student Engagement with Racial and Religious Diversity.

Hewstone, M. E., & Brown, R. E. (1986). Contact and conflict in intergroup encounters: Basil Blackwell.

Huber-Kriegler, M., Lázár, I., & Strange, J. (2003). Mirrors and windows: An intercultural communication textbook: Council of Europe.

Ihlanfeldt, K. R., & Scafidi, B. P. (2002). The neighbourhood contact hypothesis: Evidence from the multicity study of urban inequality. Urban Studies, 39(4), 619-641.

Jackson, J. (2012). Education abroad The Routledge handbook of language and intercultural communication (pp. 456-470): Routledge.

Jackson, J. (2017). Intercultural Friendship. The international encyclopedia of intercultural communication, 1-9.

Jackson, J., & Oguro, S. (2017). Intercultural interventions in study abroad: Routledge.

Kauffmann, N. L. (1992). Students Abroad: Strangers at Home. Education for a Global Society: ERIC.

Kern, R., & Develotte, C. (2018). Screens and scenes: Multimodal communication in online intercultural encounters: Routledge.

Kiemele, J. (2009). Culturally proficient leadership: Intercultural sensitivity among elementary school principals: Arizona State University.

Kiliańska-Przybyło, G. (2017). The Anatomy of Intercultural Encounters. A Cross-Cultural Sociolinguistic Study: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.

Klopf, D. W. (1998). Intercultural encounters: The fundamentals of intercultural communication: Morton Publishing Company Englewood, CO.

Kobayashi, A. (2009). An assessment of effects of the group process method of process work on the development of individuals' intercultural sensitivity: A quantitative and qualitative analysis: Union Institute and University.

Komisarof, A., & Hua, Z. (2015). Crossing boundaries and weaving intercultural work, life, and scholarship in globalizing universities: Routledge.

König, J. (2019). Developing intercultural sensitivity in a world of multicultural identities Moral and Spiritual Leadership in an Age of Plural Moralities (pp. 128-152): Routledge.

Korhonen, V. (2010a). Cross-cultural lifelong learning: University of Tampere.

Korhonen, V. (2010b). Towards intercultural sensitivity–Some considerations when studying cross-cultural issues from a lifelong learning perspective. Cross-cultural lifelong learning, 13-38.

Kriebernegg, U., Maierhofer, R., & Penz, H. (2014). Intercultural encounters in education (Vol. 13): LIT Verlag Münster.

Kudo, K., Volet, S., & Whitsed, C. (2017). Intercultural relationship development at university: A systematic literature review from an ecological and person-in-context perspective. Educational Research Review, 20, 99-116.

Kumar, S., Kumari, M., & Alam, S. (2018). Ground realities and inhibitions in execution of MGNREGA in Jharkhand, India. Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, 8(1), 74-93.

Kumari, M., & Alam, S. (2017). झारखण्ड के कंवर आदिवासियों में स्वास्थ्य संबंधी अवधारणाएं एवं मानवजाति चिकित्सकीय प्रथाएं (Perceptions Related to Ailments and Ethno-Medicinal Practices Among the Kawar Tribals of Jharkhand, India). Research Reinforcement, 5, 118-126.

Lai, C.-J. (2006). Sociocultural adaptation and intercultural sensitivity among international instructors of teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) in universities and colleges in Taiwan: University of Minnesota MN.

Landis, D., Bennett, J., & Bennett, M. (2003). Handbook of intercultural training: Sage Publications.

Lantz-Deaton, C. (2017). Internationalisation and the development of students’ intercultural competence. Teaching in Higher Education, 22(5), 532-550.

Llanes, À., Cots Caimons, J. M., Mas-Alcolea, S., & Aguilar Pérez, M. (2016). Studying the impact of academic mobility on intercultural competence: a mixed-methods perspective. Language learning journal, 2016, vol. 44, núm. 3, p. 304-322.

Lou, K. H. (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, what they’re not, and what we can do about it. Ryūgaku, 14.

Mansouri, F., & Vergani, M. (2018). Intercultural contact, knowledge of Islam, and prejudice against muslims in Australia. International journal of intercultural relations, 66, 85-94.

Mapes, J. (2020). Development of Intercultural Competence and Cultural Empathy in High School Students Participating in a Short-Term Study Abroad Exchange.

Maran, J., & Stockhammer, P. (2013). Materiality and social practice: transformative capacities of intercultural encounters;[Conference Materiality and Practice-Transformative Capacities of Intercultural Encounters; Internationales Wissenschaftsforum Heidelberg on March 25 to 27, 2010]: Oxbow.

Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2013). Intercultural communication in contexts: McGraw-Hill New York, NY.

Matkin, G. S. (2005). Demographic similarity/difference, intercultural sensitivity, and leader-member exchange: A multilevel analysis: The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Meleady, R., Seger, C., & Vermue, M. (2020). Evidence of a dynamic association between intergroup contact and intercultural competence. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations.

Meng, Q., Zhu, C., & Cao, C. (2017). The role of intergroup contact and acculturation strategies in developing Chinese international students’ global competence. Journal of Intercultural communIcatIon research, 46(3), 210-226.

Mickus, M., & Bowen, D. (2017). Reducing the cultural divide among US and Mexican students through application of the contact hypothesis. Intercultural Education, 28(6), 496-507.

Miller, N. S., & Brewer, M. B. (2013). Groups in contact: The psychology of desegregation: Academic Press.

Moore, A. S., & Simon, S. (2015). Globally networked teaching in the humanities: Theories and practices: Routledge.

Nganga, R. W. (2006). Impact of cross-cultural interaction on counselor trainees' development of cultural empathy and intercultural sensitivity: University of Wyoming.

Nunez, C. (2007). Intercultural Sensitivity: Uitgeverij Van Gorcum.

Paluck, E. L., Green, S. A., & Green, D. P. (2019). The contact hypothesis re-evaluated. Behavioural Public Policy, 3(2), 129-158.

Peng, R.-Z., & Wu, W.-P. (2016). Measuring intercultural contact and its effects on intercultural competence: A structural equation modeling approach. International journal of intercultural relations, 53, 16-27.

Pérez-Vidal, C. (2014). Language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (Vol. 13): John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Petrovskaya, I., & Shaposhnikov, S. (2020). Enhancing intercultural effectiveness in international virtual student teams: an exploratory study. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 1-17.

Pettigrew, T. F. (1986). The intergroup contact hypothesis reconsidered.

Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2005). Allport’s intergroup contact hypothesis: Its history and influence. On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport, 262-277.

Plews, J. L., & Misfeldt, K. (2018). Second language study abroad: Programming, pedagogy, and participant engagement: Springer.

Pochebut, L., & Logashenko, Y. (2014). An intercultural sensitivity as a professional trait of specialists of humanitarian sphere. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the International Scientifical Conference May 23th–24th.

Powers, S. (2018). Culturally Relevant Leisure Experiences as Predictors of Intercultural Sensitivity Among Study Abroad Students.

Ray, J. J. (1983). Racial attitudes and the contact hypothesis. The Journal of Social Psychology, 119(1), 3-10.

Ren, W. (2015). L2 pragmatic development in study abroad contexts: Peter Lang Bern.

Romanowski, P. (2017). Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching in Polish state colleges: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Salisbury, M. H., An, B. P., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013). The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence among undergraduate college students. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 50(1), 1-20.

Schauer, G. (2009). Interlanguage pragmatic development: The study abroad context: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Schiappa, E., Gregg, P. B., & Hewes, D. E. (2005). The parasocial contact hypothesis. Communication monographs, 72(1), 92-115.

Schwieter, J. W., Ferreira, A., & Miller, P. C. (2018). Study abroad learners’ metalinguistic and sociocultural reflections on short-and long-term international experiences. Intercultural Education, 29(2), 236-257.

Shook, N. J., & Fazio, R. H. (2008). Interracial roommate relationships: An experimental field test of the contact hypothesis. Psychological Science, 19(7), 717-723.

Silverman, D. (2013). Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook: SAGE publications limited.

Stephan, W. G. (1987). The contact hypothesis in intergroup relations.

Szabó, Á., Papp, Z. Z., & Luu, L. A. N. (2020). Social contact configurations of international students at school and outside of school: Implications for acculturation orientations and psychological adjustment. International journal of intercultural relations, 77, 69-82.

Thomlison, T. D. (1991). Effects of a Study-Abroad Program on University Students: Toward a Predictive Theory of Intercultural Contact.

Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Constructive intercultural conflict management. Communicating across cultures, 195-227.

Ting-Toomey, S. (2009). Intercultural conflict competence as a facet of intercultural competence development. The Sage handbook of intercultural competence, 100-120.

Turner, J. (2010). Language in the academy: Cultural reflexivity and intercultural dynamics: Multilingual matters.

Van Binsbergen, W. M. (2003). Intercultural encounters: African and anthropological lessons towards a philosophy of interculturality (Vol. 4): LIT Verlag Münster.

Van Hook, C. W. (2000). Preparing Teachers for the Diverse Classroom: A Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity.

Varela, O. E. (2017). Learning outcomes of study-abroad programs: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16(4), 531-561.

Vezzali, L., & Stathi, S. (2016). Intergroup contact theory: Recent developments and future directions: Taylor & Francis.

Walton, W. (2009). Internationalism, national identities, and study abroad: France and the United States, 1890–1970: Stanford University Press.

Wandel, R. (2003). Teaching India in the EFL-classroom: A cultural or an intercultural approach? Languages for intercultural communication and education, 6, 72-80.

Waßmuth, N., & Edinger-Schons, L. M. (2018). Are people really strange when you’re a stranger? A longitudinal study of the effect of intergroup contact on host-country identification. International journal of intercultural relations, 67, 58-70.

Werth, J. L., & Lord, C. G. (1992). Previous conceptions of the typical group member and the contact hypothesis. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 13(3), 351-369.

West, L. C. (2009). Evaluating the intercultural sensitivity scale with counselors in international schools: Regent University.

Whalen, B. (2015). Assessing study abroad: Theory, tools and practice: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Wilkinson, L. C. (2007). A developmental approach to uses of moving pictures in intercultural education. International journal of intercultural relations, 31(1), 1-27.

Winkelman, M. (2005). Cultural awareness, sensitivity and competence: Eddie Bowers Pub.

Winkler, D. W., & Tang, L. (2009). Hidden Treasures and Intercultural Encounters. 2. Auflage: Studies on East Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia (Vol. 1): LIT Verlag Münster.

Yuen, C. Y., & Grossman, D. L. (2009). The intercultural sensitivity of student teachers in three cities. Compare, 39(3), 349-365.

Zhou, S., Page-Gould, E., Aron, A., Moyer, A., & Hewstone, M. (2019). The extended contact hypothesis: A meta-analysis on 20 years of research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 23(2), 132-160.



Como Citar

Alam, A. (2020). CONCEPTUALIZATION OF CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE, INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY, INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE, AND NOMOLOGICAL NETWORK: a contact hypothesis study of sociology of education. Movimento-Revista De educação , 7(15).